Thank you for your interest in learning more about Cherokee Of Georgia.
Included on this page are several brief articles covering the subjects listed.
Cherokee Of Georgia History
What Happens At A Powwow?
The Dancers and Their Regalia
The Native Powwow Drum
Respect is the Etiquette
Words of Wisdom - Recipes
- Odds 'n Ends
Cherokee Of Georgia History
1978 - John and Jackie Singerhoff met with Papa Martin,
Charlie Alford, Milton Lee and his wife. 1979-Jackie decided to
have a mini powwow at the fire station. We want to thank the community
for helping us start our first mini powwow by allowing us use
of the fire station.
1980 - We moved on John Singerhoffs property with the
few members that we had. We then built an "outhouse"
cook shed. We had our first powwow in October 1980. Fred Glennon
was our first MC and Fred Greendeer was our first Drum. Without
their help and support we could not have gotten started. The Drum
and MC did not ask for money at that first powwow and all they
wanted was to help us get started. We would like to thank them
for all that they did.
1983 - Jim Anderson became our Drum.
1991 - We moved to Sheldon Crawford’s barn. He volunteered
his barn and land for us to use for our powwows. Billy Evanhorse
was our Drum while we were at the barn. At this time we were in
the process of looking for our own property.
1994 - We found this piece of property and negotiated
a deal to buy the property in front. Around November we negotiated
another deal to buy the property in the back.
In 1994 Bill Evanhorse came to the new property and helped us
to bless it. And at that time a cedar tree was planted by our
pump shed and is still there today.
Also in 1994 June Heckstrom was voted into office. She negotiated
a deal with the Governor’s Office to help build the bathrooms,
so that we could have modern facilities on our grounds for the
Later in 1994 the bunkhouse was built. It was to be used as a
cook shed but when we bought The property in back we decided to
build the cook shed on the back property.
1995 - In April we finished the bathrooms. We had 120
days to complete the job and we finished it in 117 days. In October
1995 we had our first powwow on the grounds. Billy Evanhorse was
1998-One of our members donated a very expensive knife
to help raise money to buy a Lawnmower for the grounds. Our traders
felt it was too nice so they donated a Pendleton blanket to raffle
to raise the money. They told the chief to keep the knife. After
the powwow we bought the mower. We want to thank our traders and
our members for their generosity. 2000-On October 3, we bought
the adjoining property to our grounds. We now have 20 acres of
land One and a half acres is used for our parking lot.
2001 - We did a special presentation at grand entry for
the 9/11 tragedy. We brought in the flags of all 50 states. This
was a beautiful and special grand entry. 2002-In October we paid
off the property.
2005 - It was our 25th anniversary and we invited all
the schools and all the public to come join us at our October
We have had a lot of fun over the years at our auctions. We have
the auctions to raise enough money to operate the grounds through
the year. I can remember one auction when one of our members dressed
up like a woman and they had a contest. One of Booboo Ann's boys
was in it, also. Eric won the contest and it was so funny. We
had a great time that night. All of our members and traders had
such fun that night and we raised money. Booboo Ann was our story
teller at that time. As I look across the grounds I see how much
we have grown and changed, and I know that the changes went along
with the growth of our tribe. This year we are in the process
of building a walkway in the woods that will have miniature villages
of many tribes along the way. We will also have the plants and
herbs marked along the trail. They will be marked both in English
and Cherokee. We hope to have it completed soon. We have several
other projects in process of being done. We are going to replace
the carpeting in the library with tile. We have a large amount
of traffic that goes through the library and the carpeting is
wearing out. We are growing so much that in the future we are
planning on adding onto the library and making a larger office.
We are also planning on building a council house. All the projects
should be completed in the next 7 years. We would appreciate any
help from any organizations, such as the Boy Scouts, etc.... The
raffles and auctions at our powwow’s are used to help support
us from powwow to powwow. We appreciate and want to say thank
you to everyone who has supported us through the years. We want
to keep our powwows free of admission to everyone. We want to
thank Patricia Crosby and her crew for all their support. We want
to say thank you to the Baker County Press and the Standard, the
Nassau County Record, the Westside Journal, the Folkston newspaper,
and all of the community. There are too many to mention but we
thank everyone for their support through the years. The most important
one to thank is our "Creator," for without him we couldn’t
have come this far or done any of this.
Chief Jerry Tall Oak Martin
What Happens At A Powwow?
A powwow takes place according to rules that are quite strict, with regional
differences. The main ones exist between the so-called Northern and Southern
powwows. But essentially, there is a specific sequence to what happens at a
powwow. Those individual parts of a powwow will be explained here.
Grand Entry - Ceremonies start with a "Grand Entry" of the
dancers to pay respects to our Creator and to greet one another. Honoring songs,
and dances for veterans and our ancestors follow. You will be asked to stand
and remove your hat for these ceremonies. Please dont take photos or videos
if youre asked not to do so; and please dont touch the clothing
or personal belongings of anyone in Native American dress -- much of what is
worn is sacred, expensive and/or irreplaceable. But do feel free to ask if you
want to take individual pictures, or if you have a question about a particular
item that someone is wearing. Most Native People will be pleased to assist you
if theyre asked first.
All dancers in regalia participate in grand entry. The dancers line up outside
the dance arena and enter the arena from the East, dancing one behind the other
to the Grand Entry song of a drum group. The sequence is pre-determined and
controlled by the Arena Director.
The Grand Entry is headed by the flag bearers, most often highly respected
veterans, who first carry in the "Indian Flag" (a coup stick with
eagle feathers), then the American flag, and then additional other flags (e.g.,
tribal flags or state flags or flags of Native organizations). Veterans, "warriors"
really, enjoy the highest respect among all tribes, and this is why at many
powwows, the so-called "Color Guard" is next, consisting of men and
women who are either service veterans or are still on active duty. They may
carry flags of the various branches of the service which they represent.
Then follow specially honored persons, e.g., the Powwow Committee, Head Man
and Head Lady Dancer, all princesses. Next come the dancers of the different
categories. Although the Grand Entry signals the beginning of the Powwow, it
is sometimes preceded by Gourd Dancing. The Gourd Dancers are Native Veterans
(and their descendants) in their regalia.
Invocation - The dancing cannot yet begin. Respectfully, everyone listens
to the prayer given either by a tribal elder or another honored person. It may
be done in Native American or Christian tradition, depending on the faith of the
person delivering it. It is most often done in the tribal language, often without
translation. The prayer is for the success of the powwow and for the well-being
of all participants and visitors.
Flag Song - Most times grand entry is followed by the flag song or Indian
national anthem. This is the patriotic song many times sung in their native
language and accompanies the American flag over the Dance Arena. Patriotism
and valor are highly regarded traits among Native Americans and we have a great
respect for this country. Please stand and remove your hat for this song. There
is no dancing during the Flag Song.
Veteran's Song - Warriors and veterans have always enjoyed high respect among
Native Americans, since people were aware of the fact that they owed their freedom
to them. This is still true today, although today the service in the armed forces
has taken the place of the former warrior societies. In keeping with this tradition,
soldiers and veterans (and, by the way, not only Native American ones!) are honored.
One way of showing this honor is that at the beginning of every powwow, they are
remembered with a special song. During this song, the dancers usually dance in
place. Sometimes there is also a Veterans Dance, which is danced by all
veterans and active soldiers and their family members. All veterans Native and
non-Native are invited to participate at this time.
First Dance - Now the dancing can start. The first dances at a powwow
are Intertribal, meaning they are not specific to any one tribe, but can be danced
by members of all tribes. An intertribal is a type of dance where all dancers
of all dance categories, of all ages, men, women, children, even dancers without
complete regalia can dance. Women only need a shawl for dancing, a rectangular
piece of material with long fringe. Men are usually expected to wear regalia,
with the exception of singers, who dance carrying their drumsticks. Inter-tribal
are the heart of the powwow - this is where everybody can dance.
Dances of Different Categories - In addition to the inter-tribal, there
are dances of different categories, where only the dancers of that particular
category may dance. These are usually danced as contests, sometimes as exhibition
dances. The categories are separated by male and female dancers and by sometimes
Group Dances - Group dancing at powwows consists of inter-tribals, socials,
blanket dances, and honor dances. During these dances, men and women will dance
in the arena at the same time. During social dances the public is invited to participate.
Eagle Feathers - The Eagle is the representative bird of the native people
of the plains and the wearing of Eagle feathers is an honor and privilege. The
proper care and handling of these feathers would take more time and space then
is possible in this article. Suffice it to say that dignity and reverence are
mandatory both in and out of the arena. The Eagle feather is never to touch the
ground or floor. This includes while assembling bustles or roaches, etc. If a
feather is dropped while dancing, the dancer may not pick it up. The dancing stops
and a ceremony is performed to restore the feathers lost power for good.
This will usually be done by a veteran who has been appointed beforehand. When
a feather is dropped, the dancer may stand in place over the feather. When it
is picked up, the dancer may stand next to the veteran and when the song ends,
shake hands, thank him and present him with a gift.
Giveaway's and Ceremonies - While most ceremonies are no longer a frequent
occurrence at public powwows, a few do occasionally take place. The most common
is the "give away." Among Native Americans the spirit of giving is very
important. As the Great Circle of Life turns, we give away to friends, relatives,
and even to people we may have never met before. We give away for many reasons.
We give away if we feel good, or are thankful, or if someone is in need. We express
thanks, or attempt to spread the good feelings we have by giving gifts. We also
give away because the Great circle of life never stops turning, and someday we
too may be in need. The recognition is more important than the material value
of the gift. In the old days, the leaders of the tribes appeared to have the least
amount of possessions because they gave away to and fed many persons.
Giveaways are also customarily held by families when one of their children enters
the war dance for the first time, when a veteran returns from the service, or
when a relative or elder has passed on. Though giveaways appear to take up a lot
of time at the powwows, and may not be that interesting to a spectator, they are
a major facet of an Indian powwow and are important to the overall spirit of the
dance. Normally, you can expect at least 3 giveaways to occur during the course
of the powwow: The Head Man, Head Lady, and the Senior Princess traditionally
On rare occasions, other ceremonies may occur. Generally, the MC will announce
the type of ceremony that is about to take place. While you may not understand
the purpose behind them, we ask you to respect them and thank you for your patience.
Honor Dance - Another frequent occurrence at powwows is the honor dance.
If an individual, family, or group of persons wishes to honor someone, were they
living or deceased, they buy a dance for them. This is a great honor and sometimes
the singers will even give a song to an individual or family that is especially
for them. If an honor dance is requested, the individual or group who has asked
for the dance pays the drum for the song with money or a gift. The drum will then
sing a special song while those being honored and the individual or group doing
the honoring will begin to dance around the arena. They are usually accompanied
by their family and close friends only the first time around. On the second revolution,
all dancers join in behind and dance around the arbor until the song has ended.
At this time, many of the dancers line up to congratulate those being honored
and present them with a gift or money. This will appear to the uninitiated and
similar to a receiving line at a modem day wedding.
Traders' Alley - Even between dance sessions, there are plenty of things
to see and do, A trip through the traders alley will usually yield a bountiful
harvest of arts, crafts, and general good times. traders are prone to spin a yam
or two between sales. The aroma chili and of fry bread turning golden brown as
it bubbles in the cooking oil tease at your taste buds. T-shirts, ribbon shirts,
shawls, and other clothing articles wave from their racks like colorful flags
in the wind. Here and there, you can catch demonstration on anything from beading,
quilt work, and flint knapping to throwing axes or playing a cedar flute. Theres
something for everyone in Traders Alley.
End - At the end of every powwow, the flags are danced out of the arena
with a special song. Sometimes all the dancers shake each others hands when
they dance out of the arena. The MC again thanks everyone for coming, wishes them
a safe trip home, and expresses his hope of seeing everyone again the following
The Dancers and Their Regalia
There are many types of dances that are part of our traditions. Each person may
choose to honor the Creator and come in to the arena dancing in the manner that
speaks to him or to her personally. Their regalia reflects their heritage, personal
experiences and style of dance. During the powwow you may see Mens Traditional
Dancers, Womens Traditional Dancers in cloth or buckskin, Grass Dancers,
Mens Fancy Dancers, Womens Fancy Shawl Dancers, Jingle Dress Dancers,
and Gourd Dancers.
Women's Traditional Dancer in Traditional Northern Lakota Regalia - The
dress is made of trade cloth which is traditionally a woolen blanket type material,
with 3 bands on the bottom. The sides are slightly longer symbolizing fringe.
The cowry shells at the neckline are in the Mountain design an are sewn on both
front and back. The dentallium shells are sewn to symbolize the four directions.
Antique brass sequins are sewn just above the colored bands.
The leggings are decorated in the same Four Directions pattern with antique brass
sequins just above the colored bands. In the past they were used in winter to
keep the womans legs warm. Today legs are kept covered for modesty.
The belt is a fully beaded strip. Attached to the belt are a knife (Right) striker
with flint (Center) and awl case (Left) Women would rub the flint on the knife
to make fire, use the awl for sewing and use the knife for cutting, protection,
The bag is a drawstring purse with flap. It is made of buckskin with beading or
The hair ties are beaded in the Four Directions pattern.
Otter hair wraps are used by both men and women.
The scarf is worn with a slider (upper left had corner). It is not always worn
to cover the neck. Women also wear chokers with this regalia.
The small beaded bag is a ration bag. -- The "shoulder brusher" earrings
are made with dentallium shells.
Most women dancers carry a fan. Fans can be made of feathers from any number of
birds. In this case the fan is macaw feathers and matches the feathers worn in
the dancers hair.
The shawl is another universal piece in womens regalia. It symbolizes blanket
traditionally used by women for warmth, courting or to cover a wounded warrior.
Shawls are made with prayers for good dancing, health etc. while tying the knots.
This dancers moccasins are beaded high tops
Over the next few powwow's we'll interview other dancers about their style of
dancing and their regalia, and add the information we gather to this section of
The Native Powwow Drum
It has been said that a Powwow can't happen without a drum, because it signifies
the heartbeat of the Indian nation. Also, it is believed to carry the heartbeat
of Mother Earth, and thereby calls the native spirits and nations together.
The Powwow drum is a large circular base, usually made of wood, covered with
hide (buffalo, deer, or cow)., Usually, four or more men formi a circle around
the drum, striking the drum in unison with covered mallets. The men then create
songs by blending their voices with the beating of the Drum. A drum has a
lead singer and a second singer who repeats the lead line on a different or
similar key. The drum members and especially the lead singer must be able
to sing and play the various kinds of songs that are requested by the master
of ceremonies or the arena director for the various events (i.e. flag raising,
honoring ceremony, different kinds of dances) that take place in the arena.
Good drums become quite popular, and in demand for powwows. Manyof the popular
Drums have recordings that are professionally made, that are sold at powwows
and other Indian venues.
Drums play many different kinds of songs; some very old and traditional, and
some more modern. Every drum has its own unique style, such as Northern
or Southern. Southern singing is a lower pitch than Northern. Since four is
a sacred number in Indian tradition, each song is sung four times.. Most songs
are sung as syllables that carry the meaning and melody of the song, but have
no actual words. Those syllables are called vocables. Native languages or
English are used for some songs. When there is more than one Drum at a powwow,
they usually take turns and frequently a specific drum is requested for a
particular song. When folks request a song by the drum, they are expected
to give the drum group a small donation.
Drummers are usually men, but women also can drum and sometimes one can see
an all womens drum group. Women frequently stand behind the drum and
sing along with the group. Financial assistance from the powwow committee
is frequently provided to a visiting Drum, to help offset their traveling
expenses. At a powwow, each Drum will play when the emcee announces their
name. Sitting closest to the announcer, you will see the "Host Drum.".
It haa also been said that a woman brought the drum to the Indian people,
and hence a woman spirit lives inside the drum. It is then fitting, for it
to be treated with respect and care, and there are strict behavior expectations
of anyone coming in contact with the drum. It is often believed to help bring
the physical and mental side of a person back in touch with his or her spiritual
or heart side. Like many things in the Indian culture, the drum is beneficial
in bringing balance and rejuvenation, through one's participation in the heartbeat,
by dancing, singing or listening.
Note: We offer grateful acknowledgement and appreciation to
Becky Olvera Schultz, of www.powwow-power.com
for her invaluable information about the Native Powwow Drum.
Respect is the Etiquette
When you attend a Powwow, it is important to remember that you are a guest,
and an observer of ancient ceremonies and traditions that have survived every
YOU CANT GO WRONG IF YOU SHOW RESPECT....
For other people....
- Listen to the Master of Ceremonies. He will tell you what is going to happen
and will explain the different dances. The MC will keep every one informed
of all important activities or announcements. DO feel welcome when you are
called by the MC to join us in the Circle. We want you to participate in the
dancing and to enjoy yourself.
- The benches encircling the Circle (arena) are reserved for the Powwow dancers
and their families. Visitors may use the benches if there are not enough dancers
to fill them. Blankets on the benches reserve the spot for dancers. Please
do not remove (or move) anyones blanket or sit on it without an invitation.
- Children should be supervised and not left unattended. Children are cherished
and we wish no harm to come to them. The railroad tracks are off limits to
everyone; especially children.
- Show respect for elders. Old people are very important in Native American
society and are given great respect. Offer elders your seat if they need it
or offer to get them a snack or beverage. BE RESPECTFUL.
- Do not stand in front of others trying to watch the dancing.
- There are certain times during a powwow where photographs and videotaping
are not permitted. The Emcee will announce those times. If you wish to take
a picture of a dancer outside of the arena you must receive the permission
of the dancer prior to taking the picture. It would be a courtesy to take
his or her name and address and send a print of the photo. Kindness and consideration
are always long remembered, and deeply appreciated.
- It is common to see tipis and lodges set up on the grounds. These are Not
Open to the public. They are the homes of the participants. Respect their
- Put aside the Hollywood image of what an "Indian" looks like. Native
Americans come in all sizes, shapes and colors. From the milk skinned blue-eyed
blond and the green-eyed redhead to the dark brown and black, they are all
Native in their heritage, blood and heart.
- Once the dance arena has been blessed with sage and prayer, it becomes spiritual
ground. Do not walk across the arena or allow your children or pets to run
into the arena.
- The sweat lodge area is sacred ground and is off limits, please obey the
- A dancer’s clothing is not a costume. It is called regalia. A dancer’s regalia
should be treated with respect. If you admire it, ask questions and always
seek permission before touching it.
- Please stand and remove your hat during the Grand Entry, Flag Song, Veterans’
Song, and other honoring songs. (The MC will tell you when to stand.)
For Community and Harmony....
- Under no circumstances are alcohol or drugs allowed on the Powwow Grounds. If you arrive
at a Powwow drunk or bring alcohol or drugs with you, you will be escorted off the grounds by
- All pets must be kept on leashes. Please clean up after your pets.
- Make an extra effort to walk to the trash can. Recycle in the cans provided.
Respect Mother Earth.
Have fun! Enjoy, and share in the Spirit. If you are not sure -- ask. And
most of all -- relax!
The whole universe comes together this day to celebrate.
Thank you. Wa Do.
In much of Native American life, the secular and sacred are intertwined: A
Powwow is a fun social event and family reunion, while at the same time it provides
a setting for spiritual enrichment through traditional rituals and individual
reflection. Dancing, as a form of personal expression, cultural identity, physical
enjoyment and worship, embodies this duality of purpose at Powwow.
Another aspect of Native American spirituality is the belief that all elements
of the world.. .the sky, the grass, the rocks, the animals, the wind, the sounds,
the people, are relatives, and are to be recognized and treated with appropriate
respect. Worshipping, singing, dancing and helping others are all means of spiritual
participation by which the Indians unite with these elements and with each other.
Litefoot, a Cherokee rap singer and actor from Oklahoma, feels that "If
we have Indian problems and we have Indian questions, we cannot find Indian
answers in mainstream society. We have to look to our Indian ways. I think it
would have to be reestablishing that walk with our creator. I mean, we are a
Barbara Feezor-Stewart, an Yankton Sioux Dakota and anthropologist: "As
I sit here and the wind goes by, I realize that God is here, that Wakantanka
is here to make this wind blow, to make my mouth move and the sound waves that
go. The spirituality of American Indians is intertwined in everyday life."
Walter LaBatt, a Sisseton Wahpeton Dakota traditional dancer, drum maker and
artist, says. "We are the original people here, and we have tried to hold
on to those good ways, because those good ways have to survive for thousands
and thousands of years. Our way is not better, it just works for us."
Honoring the Animal Spirits
In the Native American tradition, man communicated with the Creator through
interaction with nature; the birds, the forest, the animals.... Many chose or
were given symbolic "power animals" whose strength or character reflected
the human character traits of the individuals claiming the "power"
of that specific animal. Much of this attitude has carried over into modem society
as advertisements picture tigers with gas tanks (speed and power) or the US
Government and the bald eagle (power from a lofty position).
Below are some possible interpretations of the power and medicine of buffalo,
bear, eagle and wolf.
Buffalo - Abundance --
The buffalo or bison is considered by many tribes to be a symbol of abundance
for it was the meat of the buffalo that fed the people, the hides that provided
clothing and shelter, the bones and sinew provided tools of survival. The Lakotas
trace the origin of the sacred pipe to the appearance of the White Buffalo Calf
Woman who promised abundance for the tribe as they honored, by prayer, the Great
Spirit and all of their relations, meaning the other creations of nature.
"Buffalo Medicine" means to bring a special honor, reverence or appreciation
for all of the things that the Earth provides for her children.
Bear - Gentle Strength and Dreaming --
The brown bear, common to areas of the Southwestern US can grow from 4 to 5
feet and weigh as much as 400 pounds. Although they have great strength, their
gentleness makes the bears behavior almost "human like." They
are relatively good natured, but dont plan on making them mad. They have
a serious side!
Bears hibernate in the winter, which may explain their association with "dreaming
the Great Spirit" or introspection. The symbolism of the bears cave being
like returning to the womb of Mother Earth also suggests a strong feminine aspect,
one of nurturing and protection. Bear cubs, born in the early spring can spend
as many as 7 years with the mother bear before reaching maturity.
People with "Brown Bear Medicine" are considered by many as self sufficient,
and would rather stand on their own 2 feet than rely on others. They are often
considered "dreamers." Many have developed the skill of visualizing
new things, but as a result can get caught up in the "dreaming" making
little progress in "waking" reality.
Eagle - Courage, Spirit and Bravery --
Eagles have long been associated with the highest pursuits. In 1969 a voice
rang out to the world, "The eagle has landed!" What better symbology
for a landing on the moon than the "eagle." From the time that the
Persians and Romans carried eagles into battle, these majestic birds have symbolized
courage, strength and bravery. As aerial hunters, eagles are the undisputed
masters of the skies. Many tribes have identified the eagle as the one closest
to the Creator.
The wings of the eagle are an engineering marvel with feathers that can act
as little winglets to reduce turbulence, increase lift, and prevent stalling
at low speeds. With a grasp much stronger than a human hand, the eagles talons
have legendary power. It uses its powerful back talon to kill small prey instantaneously
while its front three grasp its prey securely.
Eagle feathers, revered by Native American Healers as having powerful medicine,
are regulated by a "feather bank," insuring that eagles are not killed
for their powerful medicine. Eagle Medicine is the power of the Great Spirit.
It is the spirit of tenacity.
People with Eagle Medicine often have "high ideals," and need space
to spread their wings. It is no accident that men in many tribes adorned themselves
with eagle feathers given for acts of courage and bravery, and that a healer
gingerly wraps his eagle feather in his medicine bundle after a ceremony.
Wolf - Teaching, A Guide to the Sacred --
Wolves have been long regarded by Native Americans as teachers or pathfinders.
Wolves are fiercely loyal to their mates, and have a strong sense of family
while maintaining individualism. In the stars, Wolf is represented by the Dog,
Sirius, thought by many aboriginal tribes to be the home of the "Ancients."
It seems to be through this connection that Wolf has come to be associated with
Wolves are probably the most misunderstood of the wild animals. Tales of cold
bloodedness abound, in spite of their friendly, social and intelligent traits.
They are truly free spirits even though their packs are highly organized. They
seem to go out of their way to avoid a fight. One is rarely necessary when a
shift in posture, a growl, or a glance gets the point across quite readily.
Traditionally, someone with Wolf Medicine has a strong sense of self, and communicates
well through subtle changes in voice inflection and body movements. They often
find new solutions to problems while providing stability and support that one
normally associates with a family structure.
Words of Wisdom - Recipes - Odds 'n Ends
Geronimo -- There is one God looking down on all of us. We are all the
children of one God. God is listening. The sun, the darkness, the winds are
all listening to what we now say.
Black Elk -- You have noticed that everything as Indian does is in a
circle, and that is because the Power of the World always works in circles,
and everything tries to be round The Sky is round, and I have heard that the
earth is round like a ball, and so are all the stars. The wind, in its greatest
power, whirls. Birds make their nest in circles, for theirs is the same religion
as ours.... Even the seasons form a great circle in their changing, and always
come back again to where they were. The life of a man is a circle from childhood
to childhood, and so it is in everything where power moves.
David Ipuno -- being Indian is mainly in your heart -- a way of walking
with the Earth rather than on it. Mother earth is an heirloom, not a resource.
Recipe for Butternut Squash Soup with Roasted Pumpkin Seeds -- 2 large
butternut squashes, skin and seeds removed, cut into 2-inch pieces; salt; honey;
1/4-cup pumpkin seeds; chopped chives. Place the squash meat into a heavy saucepan
and cover with water. Cook until fork-tender; drain and reserve liquid. Place
part of the squash in a food processor. Be careful - the squash is hot! Process
the squash until smooth, adding some of the reserved liquid if too thick. Continue
processing squash batches until all is processed. Season with salt and sweeten
with honey to taste. Place pumpkin seeds on a baking sheet in a 350° oven
and roast until fragrant. Ladle soup into warm soup bowls and garnish with chives
and pumpkin seeds. -- Recipe courtesy of Loretta Barrett
Did you know....?
During the winter sleep, the black bears kidneys shut down completely.
Scientists are studying this activity hoping it will provide clues to more successful
kidney transplants. Physicians would love to find a way to duplicate this in
humans so that diseased kidneys would have time to heal.